The trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs) are a group of rare but disabling primary headache disorders. Their management is challenging, since only few effective treatments are available and high doses may be required to control the headache, compromising patients’ adherence to treatments. A significant minority of patients, who fail to respond to or tolerate established treatments, are left with enormous level of disability and disruption to their quality of life. A growing body of evidence demonstrates the efficacy of central and peripheral neuromodulation approaches for management of patients with refractory TACs. In view of the potential risks related to deep brain stimulation of the posterior hypothalamic region, occipital nerve stimulation is currently considered the first treatment option for refractory chronic TACs. However, in view of the presence of paraesthesia induced by the stimulator, no robust controlled trials have been possible so far. Additionally, the equipment used for occipital nerve stimulation is not designed specifically for peripheral nerve stimulation, thus a significant proportion of patients experience device-related complications that often require surgical revisions. To overcome these issues, new neurostimulation technologies using less invasive or non-invasive approaches and modulating different neuroanatomical targets have been recently studied.